Fish Body Oils (50% Purity) 3000 mg [EPA† 900 mg and DHA† 600 mg]
Fish oils, or marine oils, are lipids (fats) found in fish, particularly cold water fish like herring, kipper, mackerel, menhaden, pilchard, salmon, sardine and trout, and phytoplankton (the sources of fish oil in Heart Health Omega III Fish Oil with Vitamin E are sardines and anchovies, tested by the manufacturer and an independent testing company to be virtually free of mercury lead, PCB and other heavy metals). Fish oils are rich sources of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanenoic acid) are the two most studied fish oils. DHA is a necessary component of the phospholipids in human cellular membranes, especially those found in the brain and retina. Clinical studies have shown omega-3 fatty acids to help maintain healthy triglyceride levels. A strong correlation has also been shown between fish oil consumption and the ability to maintain healthy levels of C-reactive protein. Fish oils are also important in the maintenance of normal blood flow, as they support normal fibrinogen levels (coagulation or blood clotting), which contributes to normal platelet activity.*
EPA and DHA have several mechanisms of action to help maintain normal triglyceride and cholesterol levels, help maintain normal blood flow and pressure, and support normal platelet activity. EPA and DHA help maintain normal triglyceride levels by promoting normal lipogenesis and supporting normal fatty acid oxidation in the liver. EPA and DHA promote the normal transcription of genes coding for lipogenesis enzymes and promote the normal transportation of the regulatory enzymes of fatty acid oxidation. Activating PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor)- alpha, helps to support normal fatty acid oxidation. The promotion of normal lipogenesis is done through down-regulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element binding protein) -1c messenger RNA.*
EPA is the precursor to series-3 prostaglandins (PG), the series-3 thrombaxanes (TX) and the series-5 leukotrienes (LT). More specifically, EPA is a precursor to eicosanoids (TXA3 and LTB5), which promote normal platelet activity and promote normal vasodilation. These effects demonstrate EPA’s potential ability to help maintain normal blood pressure and support normal blood clotting. Fish oils inhibit the arachidonic acid synthesis of thromboxane A2, which help to promote normal platelet activity and vasodilation. Fish oil may also contribute to the normal production of prostacyclin, a prostaglandin that promotes normal vasodilation and supports normal platelet activity.*
Omega-3 fatty acids compete metabolically with omega-6 fatty acids found in higher amounts in typical western diets. Omega-6 fatty acids may inhibit the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into tissue lipids. Omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit the conversion of many omega-6 fatty acids into arachidonic acid. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, a corresponding increase of these fatty acids, appears to occur in cell membranes and circulatory lipids along with a simultaneous reduction in omega-6 fatty acids.*
Hawthorn Berry 75 mg
The bioflavonoid content of hawthorn berry aids in supporting healthy blood vessels, supports a strong heart muscle and promotes the structural integrity of arteries. Several studies have also shown that hawthorn berry is beneficial in maintaining optimal heart health.*
Beta-Sitosterol 250 mg (as Cholestatin®)
Beta-sitosterol, a close relative of cholesterol, competes with cholesterol for absorption in the small intestine, thereby supporting a healthy amount of cholesterol absorption.
Cassia nomame 50 mg
Cassia nomame supports healthy levels of fat absorption from foods by supplying flavonoids that promote healthy levels of pancreatic lipases (enzymes that degrade fat) in the small intestine. Cassia Nomame extract is a lipase inhibitor. A lipase inhibitor inhibits the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of fat, thereby inhibiting its function. Subsequently, some fat molecules remain undigested and unabsorbed into the bloodstream.*
Guggulsterones 5 mg
Guggul is a resin produced by the mukul mirth tree. The extract contains guggulsterones that help maintain healthy cholesterol levels by acting in the intestine to promote normal excretion of bile acids from the body. Guggul extract has also been shown to help maintain healthy blood flow. Guggul appears to promote healthy cholesterol by inhibiting the activities of the Farnesoid X Receptor in the cells of the liver and intestine. FXR is activated in the presence of bile salts for the re-uptake of bile salts back into the body from the small intestine. Guggul appears to promote normal activity of the FXR and the bile salt export pump (BSEP), which promotes the normal excretion of bile from the body. Cholesterol, as a component of bile, is therefore excreted. By promoting the normal output of cholesterol in bile salts, the body is forced to use stored cholesterol to synthesize new bile salts.*
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 500 mcg
Vitamin B12, a bacterial product is naturally found in organ meats, liver, beef, pork, eggs, whole milk, cheese, whole wheat bread, and fish. B12 can only be found in animal products, with small amounts derived from the fermented soy products miso and tempeh and peanuts. It is essential that vegetarians consume a Vitamin B12 supplement to maintain optimal health. Vitamin B12, when ingested, is stored in the liver and other tissues for later use. The synthetic form of B12, Cyanocobalamin, is not derived from either plants or animals and is intrinsic in the maintenance of normal functioning body cells, especially those of the nervous system (maintaining the health of the sheaths of nerve cells), bone marrow and intestinal tract. These tissues are first to exhibit signs of B12 depletion. Vitamin B12 itself is responsible for maintaining optimum energy levels as it plays a vital role in the Krebs energy cycle. It is also a great anti-aging ingredient and helps increase concentration.*
Folate (Folic Acid) 300 mcg (as Metafolin®)
Folic acid is mainly found in fruits and vegetables. Dark leafy greens, oranges, orange juice, beans and peas are the best sources as well as Brewer’s yeast, which supply additional B vitamins. Folic acid plays a key role by boosting the benefits of B12 supplementation. These two B vitamins work together in maintaining normal red blood cells. Folic acid assists in the normal utilization of amino acids and proteins, as well as constructs the material for DNA and RNA synthesis. Scientific studies have found that when working in tandem with folic acid, B12 is capable of promoting normal homocysteine levels. This works toward supporting a healthy cardiovascular and nervous system.*
Riboflavin 5-Phosphate (Vitamin B2) 3 mg
Vitamin B2 is found in liver, dairy products, dark green vegetables and some types of seafood. Vitamin B2 serves as a co-enzyme, working with other B vitamins. It promotes healthy red blood cell formation, supports the nervous system, respiration, antibody production and normal human growth. It supports healthy skin, nails, hair growth and promotes normal thyroid activity. Vitamin B2 plays a crucial role in turning food into energy as a part of the electron transport chain, driving cellular energy at the molecular level. Riboflavin can be useful for pregnant or lactating women, as well as athletes due to their increased caloric needs. Vitamin B2 aids in the breakdown of fats while functioning as a cofactor or helper in activating B6 and folic acid. Vitamin B2 is water-soluble and cannot be stored by the body in significant amounts. It must be replenished daily.*
Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant. The riboflavin coenzymes are also important for the transformation of vitamin B6 and folic acid into their active forms and they promote the normal conversion of tryptophan into niacin.*
Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6) 15 mg
Poultry, fish, whole grains and bananas are the main dietary sources of vitamin B6. B6 is a co-factor required for protein and amino acid metabolism, and helps maintain proper fluid balance. It also assists in the maintenance of healthy red and white blood cells. B6 is required for hemoglobin synthesis. Vitamin B6 is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters in brain and peripheral nerve cells. It has been recommended as a nutrient to enhance mental function, specifically mood, and to support normal nerve conduction. Some athletic supplements include vitamin B6 because it promotes the conversion of glycogen to glucose for energy in muscle tissue. Vitamin B6, when taken with folic acid, has been shown to help maintain normal plasma levels of homocysteine, which promotes optimal cardiovascular health. Vitamin B6 should be administered as a part of a complex of other B-vitamins for best results.*
Thiamin HCl (Vitamin B1) 2.6 mg
Thiamin plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function. Thiamin is required for a healthy nervous system, and to promote the normal production of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is used to manufacture hydrochloric acid and, therefore, supports digestion, increases energy and helps promote mental clarity.*
D-Calcium Pantothenate (Vitamin B5) 12.5 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) is the transfer agent for choline to acetylcholine, which promotes proper neurotransmitter activity in the brain. Pantothenic acid is also known as the anti-stress vitamin because it detoxifies brain tissue, helps relieve physical and emotional stress, and promotes the normal secretion of hormones.*
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) 25 mg
Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for many aspects of health, growth and reproduction. It is part of the vitamin B complex. Niacin promotes the normal functioning of the digestive system, skin and nerves. It is also important for the conversion of food to energy. Niacin (also known as vitamin B-3) is found in dairy products, poultry, fish, lean meats, nuts and eggs, as well as legumes and enriched breads and cereals.*
Biotin (Vitamin B7) 150 mcg
Biotin can be found in food sources such as egg yolks, peanuts, beef liver, milk (10 mcg/cup), cereals, almonds and Brewer’s yeast. Biotin supports healthy cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and amino acids. It plays a role in the citric acid cycle, the process in which biochemical energy is generated during aerobic respiration. Biotin not only assists in various metabolic chemical conversions, but also supports the normal transfer of carbon dioxide. Biotin is helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails.
Sytrinol 300 mg (Polymethoxylated Flavones, Palm Tocotrienols)
Sytrinol is a patented proprietary formula derived from natural citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and palm tocotrienols. This combination results in a synergistic effect for helping to maintain healthy cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Sytrinol has also been shown to help maintain healthy HDL levels. Sytrinol is a powerful antioxidant with numerous heart health benefits. It promotes cardiovascular health, supports glycemic control and promotes normal blood platelet aggregation.
Polymethoxylated Flavones (PMFs)
Polymethoxylated Flavones are extremely bioactive potent bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits. This is especially true for tangeretin and nobiletin, two of the most common flavonoids found in nutrient-rich foods. More than 25 years of documented research provides evidence that these particular bioflavonoids deliver heart health benefits. Specific PMFs, including nobiletin and tangeretin, have been found to promote normal levels of LDL cholesterol.
In vitro, Sytrinol was shown to help maintain normal cytokine activity; cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukins 1-beta. Sytrinol was also shown to promote normal t-lymphocyte mitogenic response and thymidine uptake by activated lymphocytes.
Palm tocotrienols, along with tocopherols, are members of the vitamin E family and are extracted from the fruit of the palm tree. Like vitamin E, palm tocotrienols degrade HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in our bodies used by the liver to produce cholesterol. New data on the biological activity of tocotrienols in cardiovascular health maintenance, along with its antioxidant properties, have raised tocotrienols to a new level of prominence in the scientific community.
A completely new perspective has developed as to the role tocotrienols play in heart health and their importance as a supplement to a healthy diet. Some of the key areas of interest have centered on its role in maintaining and supporting a healthy cardiovascular system by promoting healthy cholesterol, and supporting healthy blood platelet activity. In a recent study that was published in the Journal of Atherosclerosis, researchers at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine in Japan found that tocotrienols were more effective than vitamin E in promoting heart health. The study revealed that tocotrienols accumulate at levels that are 25-95 times greater than alpha tocopherol in human aortic endothelial cells.
Tocotrienols are also potent antioxidants. In human studies, researchers observed that alpha tocotrienols reduced the oxidation of LDL. The antioxidant properties of tocotrienols can mitigate the damage caused by free radicals while protecting cell membranes for better cellular communication.
A clinical trial consisting of 60 adults showed that four weeks of treatment with 300 mg of patented Sytrinol daily promoted normal levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Follow-up clinical studies have provided further support that Sytrinol promotes cardiovascular health.
†According to the FDA, supportive, but not conclusive, research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.