The Heart Health System is comprised of Heart Health Essential Omega III Fish Oil with Vitamin E, Heart Health TriActive, and Heart Health Advanced LipiTrim® Ultra, all designed to promote overall cardiovascular health. Heart Health Essential Omega III Fish Oil with Vitamin E provides the three grams of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) that studies reveal is the most effective amount to promote overall cardiovascular health. Heart Health Advanced LipiTrim® Ultra is composed of Sytrinol®, a patented proprietary formula derived from natural citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and palm tocotrienols, designed to promote overall cardiovascular health. Sytrinol works in the liver without inhibiting the production of CoQ10. Advanced LipiTrim Ultra is a powerful antioxidant; it helps promote delivery of healthy levels of LDL throughout the body, promotes a normal rate of cholesterol production, promotes healthy levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and promotes the normal synthesis of triglycerides in the liver. Heart Health TriActive targets three major areas, the arteries, cholesterol and homocysteine levels to promote the healthy performance of the bodys cardiovascular system. This unique formula uses a combination of natural ingredients that have been shown to safely and effectively support optimal arterial function and help maintain normal cholesterol and homocysteine levels.*
According to the FDA, supportive, but not conclusive, research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product(s) is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Heart Health Essential Omega III Fish Oil with Vitamin E
- Each daily serving provides 6000 mg of fish oil to supply 1800 mg of EPA† and 1200 mg DHA†
- Helps enhance mood
- Helps maintain healthy levels of C-reactive protein
- Helps maintain normal blood flow
- Helps maintain normal cholesterol levels
- Helps maintain normal triglyceride levels in the blood
- Promotes a healthy complexion
- Promotes healthy blood pressure levels
- Promotes overall cardiovascular health
Heart Health TriActive™
- B vitamins promote the healthy formation of red blood cells
- Helps maintain a strong heart muscle
- Helps maintain normal homocysteine levels (which promotes cardiovascular and arterial health)
- Helps maintain normal levels of cholesterol
- Promotes a normal rate of cholesterol production
- Promotes absorption of healthy levels of cholesterol and bile acids from the intestines
- Promotes normal fat absorption by various lipases in the intestine
- Provides antioxidant protection of LDL particles
Heart Health Advanced LipiTrim® Ultra
- Helps promote delivery of healthy levels of LDL throughout the body
- Promotes a normal rate of cholesterol production
- Promotes healthy levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels
- Supports normal synthesis of triglycerides in the liver
†According to the FDA, supportive, but not conclusive, research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
Fish Body Oils (50% Purity) 3000 mg [EPA 900 mg and DHA 600 mg]
Fish oils, or marine oils, are lipids (fats) found in fish, particularly cold water fish like herring, kipper, mackerel, menhaden, pilchard, salmon, sardine and trout, and phytoplankton (the sources of fish oil in Heart Health Omega III Fish Oil are sardines and anchovies, tested by the manufacturer and an independent testing company to be virtually free of mercury lead, PCB and other heavy metals). Fish oils are rich sources of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanenoic acid) are the two most studied fish oils. DHA is a necessary component of the phospholipids in human cellular membranes, especially those found in the brain and retina. Clinical studies have shown omega-3 fatty acids to help maintain healthy triglyceride levels. A strong correlation has also been shown between fish oil consumption and the ability to maintain healthy levels of C-reactive protein. Fish oils are also important in the maintenance of normal blood flow, as they support normal fibrinogen levels (coagulation or blood clotting), which contributes to normal platelet activity.*
EPA and DHA have several mechanisms of action to help maintain normal triglyceride and cholesterol levels, help maintain normal blood flow and pressure, and support normal platelet activity. EPA and DHA help maintain normal triglyceride levels by promoting normal lipogenesis and supporting normal fatty acid oxidation in the liver. EPA and DHA promote the normal transcription of genes coding for lipogenesis enzymes and promote the normal transportation of the regulatory enzymes of fatty acid oxidation. Activating PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor)- alpha, helps to support normal fatty acid oxidation. The promotion of normal lipogenesis is done through down-regulation of SREBP (sterol regulatory element binding protein) -1c messenger RNA.*
EPA is the precursor to series-3 prostaglandins (PG), the series-3 thrombaxanes (TX) and the series-5 leukotrienes (LT). More specifically, EPA is a precursor to eicosanoids (TXA3 and LTB5), which promote normal platelet activity and promote normal vasodilation. These effects demonstrate EPAs potential ability to help maintain normal blood pressure and support normal blood clotting. Fish oils inhibit the arachidonic acid synthesis of thromboxane A2, which help to promote normal platelet activity and vasodilation. Fish oil may also contribute to the normal production of prostacyclin, a prostaglandin that promotes normal vasodilation and supports normal platelet activity.*
Omega-3 fatty acids compete metabolically with omega-6 fatty acids found in higher amounts in typical western diets. Omega-6 fatty acids may inhibit the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into tissue lipids. Omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit the conversion of many omega-6 fatty acids into arachidonic acid. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, a corresponding increase of these fatty acids, appears to occur in cell membranes and circulatory lipids along with a simulataneous reduction in omega-6 fatty acids.*
Garlic 450 mg
The cardiovascular benefits associated with garlic are generally attributed to the various sulfur compounds that can be isolated from the raw clove. These compounds, which include alliin, allicin, S-allyl-cysteine, S-methyl-cysteine and many others, are found in varying concentrations in garlic, chives, leeks, shallots and onions, but the chemical composition may vary considerably, depending on processing methods. Garlic helps maintain healthy levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, promotes normal platelet activity and helps maintain normal blood pressure.*
Hawthorn Berry 75 mg
The bioflavonoid content of hawthorn berry aids in supporting healthy blood vessels, supports a strong heart muscle and promotes the structural integrity of arteries. Several studies have also shown that hawthorn berry is beneficial in maintaining optimal heart health.* Beta-Sitosterol 250 mg (as Cholestatin®) Beta-sitosterol, a close relative of cholesterol, competes with cholesterol for absorption in the small intestine, thereby supporting a healthy amount of cholesterol absorption.
Cassia nomame 50 mg
Cassia nomame supports healthy levels of fat absorption from foods by supplying flavonoids that promote healthy levels of pancreatic lipases (enzymes that degrade fat) in the small intestine. Cassia Nomame extract is a lipase inhibitor. A lipase inhibitor inhibits the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of fat, thereby inhibiting its function. Subsequently, some fat molecules remain undigested and unabsorbed into the bloodstream.*
Guggulsterones 5 mg
Guggul is a resin produced by the mukul mirth tree. The extract contains guggulsterones that help maintain healthy cholesterol levels by acting in the intestine to promote normal excretion of bile acids from the body. Guggul extract has also been shown to help maintain healthy blood flow. Guggul appears to promote healthy cholesterol by inhibiting the activities of the Farnesoid X Receptor in the cells of the liver and intestine. FXR is activated in the presence of bile salts for the re-uptake of bile salts back into the body from the small intestine. Guggul appears to promote normal activity of the FXR and the bile salt export pump (BSEP), which promotes the normal excretion of bile from the body. Cholesterol, as a component of bile, is therefore excreted. By promoting the normal output of cholesterol in bile salts, the body is forced to use stored cholesterol to synthesize new bile salts.*
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12): 500 mcg
Vitamin B12, a bacterial product is naturally found in organ meats, liver, beef, pork, eggs, whole milk, cheese, whole wheat bread, and fish. B12 can only be found in animal products, with small amounts derived from the fermented soy products miso and tempeh and peanuts. It is essential that vegetarians consume a vitamin B12 supplement to maintain optimal health. Vitamin B12, when ingested, is stored in the liver and other tissues for later use. The synthetic form of B12, Cyanocobalamin, is not derived from either plants or animals and is intrinsic in the maintenance of normal functioning body cells, especially those of the nervous system (maintaining the health of the sheaths of nerve cells), bone marrow and intestinal tract. These tissues are first to exhibit signs of B12 depletion. Vitamin B12 itself is responsible for maintaining optimum energy levels as it plays a vital role in the Krebs energy cycle. It is also a great anti-aging ingredient and helps increase concentration.*
Folate (Folic Acid): 300 mcg (as Metafolin®)
Folic acid is mainly found in fruits and vegetables. Dark, leafy greens, oranges, orange juice, beans and peas are the best sources as well as Brewers yeast, which supply additional B vitamins. Folic acid plays a key role by boosting the benefits of B12 supplementation. These two B vitamins work together in maintaining normal red blood cells. Folic acid assists in the normal utilization of amino acids and proteins, as well as constructs the material for DNA and RNA synthesis. Scientific studies have found that when working in tandem with folic acid, B12 is capable of promoting normal homocysteine levels. This works toward supporting a healthy cardiovascular and nervous system.*
Riboflavin 5-Phosphate (Vitamin B2): 3 mg
Vitamin B2 is found in liver, dairy products, dark green vegetables and some types of seafood. Vitamin B2 serves as a co-enzyme, working with other B vitamins. It promotes healthy red blood cell formation, supports the nervous system, respiration, antibody production and normal human growth. It supports healthy skin, nails, hair growth and promotes normal thyroid activity. Vitamin B2 plays a crucial role in turning food into energy as a part of the electron transport chain, driving cellular energy at the molecular level. Riboflavin can be useful for pregnant or lactating women, as well as athletes due to their increased caloric needs. Vitamin B2 aids in the breakdown of fats while functioning as a cofactor or helper in activating B6 and folic acid. Vitamin B2 is water-soluble and cannot be stored by the body in significant amounts. It must be replenished daily.* Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant. The riboflavin coenzymes are also important for the transformation of vitamin B6 and folic acid into their active forms and they promote the normal conversion of tryptophan into niacin.*
Pyridoxine HCl (Vitamin B6): 15 mg
Poultry, fish, whole grains and bananas are the main dietary sources of vitamin B6. B6 is a co-factor required for protein and amino acid metabolism, and helps maintain proper fluid balance. It also assists in the maintenance of healthy red and white blood cells. B6 is required for hemoglobin synthesis. Vitamin B6 is involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters in brain and peripheral nerve cells. It has been recommended as a nutrient to enhance mental function, specifically mood, and to support normal nerve conduction. Some athletic supplements include vitamin B6 because it promotes the conversion of glycogen to glucose for energy in muscle tissue. Vitamin B6, when taken with folic acid, has been shown to help maintain normal plasma levels of homocysteine, which promotes optimal cardiovascular health. Vitamin B6 should be administered as a part of a complex of other B-vitamins for best results.*
Thiamin HCl (Vitamin B1): 2.6 mg
Thiamin plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism and nerve function. Thiamin is required for a healthy nervous system, and to promote the normal production of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). It is used to manufacture hydrochloric acid and, therefore, supports digestion, increases energy and helps promote mental clarity.*
D-Calcium Pantothenate (Vitamin B5): 12.5 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) is the transfer agent for choline to acetylcholine, which promotes proper neurotransmitter activity in the brain. Pantothenic acid is also known as the anti-stress vitamin because it detoxifies brain tissue, helps relieve physical and emotional stress, and promotes the normal secretion of hormones.*
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3): 25 mg
Niacin is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for many aspects of health, growth and reproduction. It is part of the vitamin B complex. Niacin promotes the normal functioning of the digestive system, skin and nerves. It is also important for the conversion of food to energy. Niacin (also known as vitamin B-3) is found in dairy products, poultry, fish, lean meats, nuts and eggs, as well as legumes and enriched breads and cereals.*
Biotin (Vitamin B7): 150 mcg
Biotin can be found in food sources such as egg yolks, peanuts, beef liver, milk (10 mcg/cup), cereals, almonds and Brewers yeast. Biotin supports healthy cell growth, the production of fatty acids, metabolism of fats, and amino acids. It plays a role in the citric acid cycle, the process in which biochemical energy is generated during aerobic respiration. Biotin not only assists in various metabolic chemical conversions, but also supports the normal transfer of carbon dioxide. Biotin is helpful in maintaining a steady blood sugar level. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails.
Sytrinol® 300 mg (Polymethoxylated Flavones, Palm Tocotrienols)
Sytrinol is a patented proprietary formula derived from natural citrus polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and palm tocotrienols. This combination results in a synergistic effect for helping to maintain healthy cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Sytrinol has also been shown to help maintain healthy HDL levels. Sytrinol is a powerful antioxidant with numerous heart health benefits. It promotes cardiovascular health, supports glycemic control and promotes normal blood platelet aggregation.
Polymethoxylated Flavones (PMFs)
Polymethoxylated Flavones are extremely bioactive potent bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits. This is especially true for tangeretin and nobiletin, two of the most common flavonoids found in nutrient-rich foods. More than 25 years of documented research provides evidence that these particular bioflavonoids deliver heart health benefits. Specific PMFs, including nobiletin and tangeretin, have been found to promote normal levels of LDL cholesterol. In vitro, Sytrinol was shown to help maintain normal cytokine activity; cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukins 1-beta. Sytrinol was also shown to promote normal t-lymphocyte mitogenic response and thymidine uptake by activated lymphocytes.
Palm tocotrienols, along with tocopherols, are members of the vitamin E family and are extracted from the fruit of the palm tree. Like vitamin E, palm tocotrienols degrade HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in our bodies used by the liver to produce cholesterol. New data on the biological activity of tocotrienols in cardiovascular health maintenance, along with its antioxidant properties, have raised tocotrienols to a new level of prominence in the scientific community.
A completely new perspective has developed as to the role tocotrienols play in heart health and their importance as a supplement to a healthy diet. Some of the key areas of interest have centered on its role in maintaining and supporting a healthy cardiovascular system by promoting healthy cholesterol, and supporting healthy blood platelet activity. In a recent study that was published in the Journal of Atherosclerosis, researchers at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine in Japan found that tocotrienols were more effective than vitamin E in promoting heart health. The study revealed that tocotrienols accumulate at levels that are 25-95 times greater than alpha tocopherol in human aortic endothelial cells.
Tocotrienols are also potent antioxidants. In human studies, researchers observed that alpha tocotrienols reduced the oxidation of LDL. The antioxidant properties of tocotrienols can mitigate the damage caused by free radicals while protecting cell membranes for better cellular communication.
A clinical trial consisting of 60 adults showed that four weeks of treatment with 300 mg of patented Sytrinol daily promoted normal levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Follow-up clinical studies have provided further support that Sytrinol promotes cardiovascular health. According to the FDA, supportive, but not conclusive, research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
What exactly is cardiovascular health?
The term cardiovascular health (also referred to as heart health) is used to describe a cardiovascular system that is strong and in good physical condition. By leading a more healthful lifestyle and through proper supplementation, you can significantly increase your chances of maintaining good cardiovascular health.
What does lifestyle have to do with heart health?
There are simple, everyday things you can do to help maintain proper heart health. Among these are:
- Not smoking
- Maintaining a healthy height-to-weight ratio
- Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetable and whole grains
- Limiting the consumption of total and saturated fat
- Exercising regularly
- Working with your physician to monitor cholesterol, blood pressure, homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels
- Starting a complete nutritional supplementation program designed to help maintain proper cardiovascular health
What is homocysteine?
Homocysteine is a marker of cardiovascular risk. Homocysteine is a toxic amino acid that, when found in high concentrations in the blood, is associated with a high risk of heart disease and stroke. According to some experts, homocysteine, as a marker for CVD, is as important a factor as cholesterol or smoking. Homocysteine levels can become elevated as a result of smoking, high alcohol consumption, low levels of selected B-vitamins in the diet, and it is associated with poor cardiovascular health.
Is the fish oil tested to be free of heavy metals?
Yes. The fish oil used in Essential Omega III is tested twice; once from the manufacturer and then by an independent testing company. The fish oil used in Essential Omega III is laboratory tested for mercury, lead, PCB and other heavy metals. We only use fish oil that meets or exceeds standards set by Canada (CFIA), the European Union (EU) and the United States (CRN).*
Is this product vegetarian?
No. This product contains gelatin and fish oils.
What is meant by 50 percent purity?
The 50 percent purity refers to the fish body oils, EPA and DHA. This is the highest quality fish oil available at this time. The other 50 percent are assorted fatty acids contained within the fish body oils.
Why is LDL cholesterol considered bad?
When too much LDL cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowly build up in the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain. Together with other substances, it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog those arteries. If a clot forms and blocks a narrowed artery, it can cause serious heart problems.
Why is HDL cholesterol considered good?
About one-third to one-fourth of blood cholesterol is carried by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL cholesterol is known as the good cholesterol because a high level of it seems to protect against heart problems. Medical experts think that HDL tends to carry cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver where it's passed from the body. Some experts believe that HDL removes excess cholesterol from plaque in arteries, thus slowing the buildup.
What are triglycerides and how are they related to HDL and LDL?
Triglyceride is a form of fat. It comes from food and is also made in your body. People with high triglycerides levels often have high overall cholesterol, which is high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels.
- Ameer B, Weintraub RA, Johnson JV, Yost RA, Rouseff RL. Flavanone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Jul; 60(1): 34-40.
- Bok SH, Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Son KH, Jeong TS, Choi MS Plasma and hepatic cholesterol and hepatic activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and acyl CoA: cholesterol transferase are lower in rats fed citrus peel extract or a mixture of citrus bioflavonoids. J Nutr. 1999 Jun;129(6):1182-5.
- Borradaile NM , de Dreu LE, Barrett PH, Behrsin CD, Huff MW. Hepatocyte apoB-containing lipoprotein secretion is decreased by the grapefruit flavonoid, naringenin, via inhibition of MTP-mediated microsomal triglyceride accumulation. Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 11; 42(5) - 1283-91.
- Borradaile NM, de Dreu LE, Barrett PH, Huff MW. Inhibition of hepatocyte apoB secretion by naringenin - enhanced rapid intracellular degradation independent of reduced microsomal cholesteryl esters. J Lipid Res. 2002 Sep;43(9):1544-54.
- Borradaile, N.M., Carroll, K.K., and Kurowska, E.M., Regulation of HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B metabolism by the citrus flavones hesperitin and naringenin, Lipids, 34: 491-598, 1999
- Borradaile , N.M. , Carroll, K.K. and Kurowska, E.M. Regulation of apo B metabolism in HepG2 cells by the citrus flavanones hesperetin and naringenin. Lipids 34 (1999) 591-598.
- Bors, W., Heller, W., Michel, C., and Saran, M., Flavonoids as antioxidants: determination of radical scavenging efficiencies, Method Enzymol., 186:343-355, 1990.
- Cheeke, P.R., Nutrition and nutritional disease, in The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit, Manning, P.J., Ringler, D.H., and Newcomer, C.E., Eds., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1994.
- Chiba H, Uehara M, Wu J, Wang X, Masuyama R, Suzuki K, Kanazawa K, Ishimi Y. Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits bone loss and decreases serum and hepatic lipids in ovariectomized mice. J Nutr. 2003 Jun; 133(6): 1892-7.
- Choi, J.S., Yokozawa, T., and Oura, H., Antihyperlipidemic effect of flavonoids from Prunus davidiana, J. Nat. Prod., 54:218-224, 1991.
- Cook, N.C. and Samman, S., Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources, J. Nutr. Biochem., 7:66-76, 1996.
- Dixon JL, Ginsberg HN Regulation of hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins: information obtained from cultured liver cells. J Lipid Res. 1993 Feb; 34(2):167-79. Review
- Erlund I, Silaste ML, Alfthan G, Rantala M, Kesaniemi YA, Aro A. Plasma concentrations of the flavonoids hesperetin, naringenin and quercetin in human subjects following their habitual diets, and diets high or low in fruit and vegetables. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Sep; 56(9): 891-8.
- Hansen, M.B., Nielsen, S.E., and Berg, K. Re-examination and further development of a precise and rapid dye method for measuring cell growth/cell kill. J. Immunol. Meth., 119:203-210, 1989.
- Hayes, K.C., Pronczuk, A. and Liang, J.S. Differences in the plasma transport and tissue concentrations of tocopherols and tocotrienols: Observations in humans and hamsters. P. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 202 (1993) 353-359.
- Horowitz, R.M, Gentili, B. Flavonoid constituents of Citrus. In Citrus Science and Technology; Nagy, S., Shaw, P.E., Veldhuis, M.K., Eds.; Avi Publishing Company, Inc.; Westport, CT, 1977; Vol 1, pp 397-426
- Kamat JP, Sarma HD, Devasagayam TP, Naseratnam K and Basiron Y. Tocotrienols from palm oil as effective inhibitors of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. Mol. Cell Biochem. 170:131-137, 1997.
- Kawaguchi , K., Mizuno, T., Aida, K., and Uchino, K. Hesperidin as an inhibitor of lipases from porcine pancreas and pseudomonas. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem., 61:102-104, 1997.
- Khor, H.T., Chieng D.Y., and Ong, K.K. Tocotrienols inhibit liver HMG-CoA reductase activity in the guinea pig. Nutr. Res., 15:537:544, 1995.
- Kurowska EM Determination of cholesterol-lowering potential of minor dietary components by measuring apolipoprotein B responses in HepG2 cells. Methods Enzymol. 2001; 335:398-404. · Kurowska EM, Manthey JA, Casaschi A, Theriault AG. Modulation of HepG2 cell net apolipoprotein B secretion by the citrus polymethoxyflavone, tangeretin. Lipids. 2004 Feb; 39(2): 143-51.
- Kurowska, E.M. and Borradaile , N.M. , Hypercholesterolemic effects of dietary citrus juices in rabbits, Nutr. Res., 20: 121-129, 2000.
- Kurowska, E.M., Hrabek-Smith, J.M., and Carroll, K.K., Compositional changes in serum lipoproteins during developing hypercholesterolemia induced in rabbits by cholesterol-free semipurified diets, Atherosclerosis, 78: 159-165, 1989.
- Kurowska EM, Manthey JA. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism in HepG2 cells by citrus flavonoids. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 505:173-9. Review.
- Kurowska EM, Manthey JA. Hypolipidemic effects and absorption of citrus polymethoxylated flavones in hamsters with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19;52(10):2879-86.
- Kurowska, E.M., Morley, K. and Gapor, A. Role of tocotrienols from palm oil in regulation of apo B metabolism in HepG2 cells. Experimental Biology 99, Washington , DC , April 17-21, 1999.
- Kurowska, E.M., Morley, K., and Gapor, A. Regulation of apo B production in HepG2 cells by tocotrienols from palm oil. Proceedings, PORIM International Palm Oil Congress, Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia , 212-219, 1999.
- Kurowska EM, Spence JD, Jordan J, Wetmore S, Freeman DJ, Piche LA, Serratore P. HDL-cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Nov;72(5):1095-100.
- Manach C, Morand C, Gil-Izquierdo A, Bouteloup-Demange C, Remesy C. Bioavailability in humans of the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin after the ingestion of two doses of orange juice. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;57(2):235-42.
- Manthey JA, Grohmann K, Guthrie N. Biological properties of citrus flavonoids pertaining to cancer and inflammation. Curr Med Chem. 2001 Feb;8(2):135-53. Review.
- Mensink, R.P., van Houwelingen, A.C., Kromhout, D., and Hornstra, G. A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69:213-219, 1999.
- Monforte, M.T., Trovato, A., Kirjavainen, S., Forestieri, A.M., and Galati , E.M. Biological effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid. (note II): hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat. Farmaco 50:595-599, 1995.
- Murakami A, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H, Kuwahara S, Kuki W, Takahashi Y, Hosotani K, Kawahara S, Matsuoka Y. Characteristic rat tissue accumulation of nobiletin, a chemopreventive polymethoxyflavonoid, in comparison with luteolin. Biofactors. 2002; 16(3-4): 73-82.
- Murakami A, Kuwahara, S., Takahashi Y , Ito, C., Furukawa, H., Ju-Ichi, M. In Vitro absorption and metabolism of nobiletin, a chemopreventive polymethoxyflavonoid in citrus fruits. Biosci., Biotechnol., Biochem. 2001. 65. 194-197.
- Nielsen SE, Breinholt V, Cornett C, Dragsted LO Biotransformation of the citrus flavone tangeretin in rats. Identification of metabolites with intact flavane nucleus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Sep;38(9):739-46.
- Nielsen SE, Breinholt V, Justesen U, Cornett C, Dragsted LO. In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes. Xenobiotica. 1998 Apr;28(4):389-401.
- Parker, R.A., Pearce, B.C., Clark , R.W., Gordon, D.A., and Wright J.J.K. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J. Biol. Chem., 268:11230-11238, 1993.
- Pearce, B.C., Parker, R.A., Deason, M.E., Quereshi, A.A., and Wright J.J.K. Hypercholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J. Med. Chem., 35:3595-3606, 1992.
- Quereshi, A.A., Bradlow, B.A., Brace, L. et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 30 (1995) 1171-1177.
- Quereshi, A.A., Bradlow, B.A., Salser, W.A., and Brace, L.D. Novel tocotrienols of rice bran modulate cardiovascular disease risk parameters of hypercholesterolemic humans. J. Nutr. Biochem., 8:290-298, 1997.
- Quereshi, A.A., Pearce, B.C., Nor, R.M., Gapor, A., Peterson, D.M. and Elson. C.E. Dietary a-tocopherol attenuates the impact of g-tocotrienol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase activity in chickens. J. Nutr., 126:389-394, 1996.
- Quereshi, A.A., Quereshi, N., Hasler-Rapacz, J.O. et al. Dietary tocotrienols reduce concentrations of plasma cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, tromboxane B2, and platelet factor 4 in pigs with inherited hyperlipidemias. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53 (1991) 1042S-1046S.
- Quereshi, A.A., Quereshi, N., Wright J.J.K., Shen, Z., Kramer, G., Gapor, A., Chong, Y.H., DeWitt, G., Ong, A.S.H., Peterson, D.M., and Bradlow, B.A. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53:1021S-1026S, 1991.
- Quereshi, N. and Quereshi, A.A. Tocotrienols: Novel hypocholesterolemic agents with antioxidant properties. In: Vitamin E in Health and Disease, Packer L. and Fuchs, J. (eds.) Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1993, 247-267.
- Shin, Y.W., Bok, S.H., Jeong, T.S., Bae, K.H., Jeoung , N.H. , Choi, M.S., Lee, S.H. and Park, Y.B. Hypocholesterolemic effect of naringin associated with hepatic cholesterol regulating enzyme changes in rats. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 69 (1999) 341-347.
- Spencer JP, Chowrimootoo G, Choudhury R, Debnam ES, Srai SK , Rice-Evans C. The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. FEBS Lett. 1999 Sep 17;458(2):224-30
- Theriault, A., Chao, J.T., Wang, Q., Gapor, A. and Adeli, K. Tocotrienol: A review of its therapeutic potential. Clin. Biochem 32 (1999) 309-319.
- Theriault, A., Wang, Q., Gapor, A., and Adeli, K. Effects of g-tocotrienol on apoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. Arterioscler. Tromb. Vac. Biol., 19:714-712, 1999.
- Theriault, A., Wang, Q., Gapor, A., and Adeli, K. Effects of g-tocotrienol on apoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. Arterioscler. Tromb. Vac. Biol., 19:714-712, 1999.
- Thrift, R.N., Forte, T.M., Cahoon, B.E., and Shore, V.G., Characterization of lipoprotein produced by the human liver cell line HepG2, under defined conditions, J. Lipid Res., 27: 236-250, 1986.
- Tomeo AC, Geller M, Watkins TR, Gapor A and Bierenbaum ML. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 30:1179-1183, 1995.
- Watkins, T., Lenz, P., Gapor, A., Struck, M., Tomeo, A., and Bierenbaum, M. g-Tocotrienol as a hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant agent in rats fed atherogenic diet. Lipids 28:1113-1118, 1993.
- Wilcox, L.J., Borradaile , N.M. and Huff, M.W. Antiatherogenic properties of naringenin, a citrus flavonoid. Cardiovasc. Drug Rev. 17 (1999) 160-178.
- Wilcox LJ, Borradaile NM, de Dreu LE, Huff MW. Secretion of hepatocyte apoB is inhibited by the flavonoids, naringenin and hesperetin, via reduced activity and expression of ACAT2 and MTP. J Lipid Res. 2001 May; 42(5): 725-34.
- Wilcox, L.J., Borradaile , N.M. , Kurowska, E.M. Telford, D.E., and Huff, M.W., Naringenin, a citrus flavonoids, markedly decreases apoB secretion in HepG2 cells and inhibits acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase, Circulation, 98: 1-537, 1998.
- Delaney B, Phillips K, Vasquez C, Wilson A, Cox D, Wang HB, Manthey J.Genetic toxicity of a standardized mixture of citrus polymethoxylated flavones. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 May;40(5):617-24.
- Delaney B, Phillips K, Buswell D, Mowry B, Nickels D, Cox D, Wang HB, Manthey J. Immunotoxicity of a standardized citrus polymethoxylated flavone extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001 Nov; 39(11): 1087-94.
- Kawaii S, Tomono Y, Katase E, Ogawa K, Yano M. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids on several cancer cell lines. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999 May; 63(5):896-9.
- Manthey JA, Guthrie N. Antiproliferative activities of citrus flavonoids against six human cancer cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 9; 50(21): 5837-43.
- Manthey JA, Grohmann K. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jul; 49(7): 3268-73.
- Manthey JA, Grohmann K, Montanari A, Ash K, Manthey CL. Polymethoxylated flavones derived from citrus suppress tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression by human monocytes. J Nat Prod. 1999 Mar; 62(3): 441-4.
- Mora A, Paya M, Rios JL, Alcaraz MJ. Structure-activity relationships of polymethoxyflavones and other flavonoids as inhibitors of non-enzymic lipid peroxidation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1990 Aug 15; 40(4): 793-7.
- Takanaga H, Ohnishi A, Yamada S, Matsuo H, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y, Ohtani H, Sawada Y. Polymethoxylated flavones in orange juice are inhibitors of P-glycoprotein but not cytochrome P450 3A4. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Apr; 293(1):230-6. Essential Omega III Fish Oil with Vitamin E
- Madsen T, Skou HA, et al, C-reactive protein, dietary n-3 fatty acids, and the extent of coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 88:1139-42 (2001)
- Rigelsky, JM, et al, Hawthorn: pharmacology and therapeutic uses. Am J Health Syst Pharm 59:417-22 (2002)
- Kris-Etherton PM, et al, fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23(2):e20-e30 (2003)
- Morris, MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 88(2):523-533 (1993)
- Howe PR. Dietary fats and hypertension. Focus on fish oil. Ann NY Acad Sci 827:339-352 (1997)
- Morris MC, et al, The effect of fish oil on blood pressure in mild hypertensive subjects: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 57(1):59-64 (1993)
- Knapp HR, FitzGerald GA. The antihypertensive effects of fish oil. A controlled study of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements in essential hypertension. J Engl J Med 320(16):1037-1043 (1989)
- Bonaa, KH, et al, Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on blood pressure in hypertension. A population-based intervention trial from the Tromso study. N Engl J Med 322(12):795-801 (1990)
- Chan JK, et al, Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is as effective as oleic acid and linoleic acid in lowering blood cholesterol in normolipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 53(5):1230-1234 (1991)
- Harris WS, et al, Dietary omega-3 fatty acids prevent carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Metabolism 33(11):1016-1019 (1984)
- Nestel PJ. Fish oil attenuates the cholesterol induced rise in lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 43(5):752-757 (1986)
- Tsai PJ, Lu SC. Fish oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations and increases the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidative modification in healthy men. J Formos Med Assoc 96(9):718-726 (1997)
- Garrido A, et al, Ingestion of high doses of fish oil increases the susceptibility of cellular membranes to the induction of oxidative stress. Lipids 24(9):833-835 (1989) TriActive
- Bronstrup A et al. Effects of folic acid and combinations of folic acid and vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy young women. American of Journal Clinical Nutrition 68:1104-10, 1998.
- Brouwer I et al. Low-dose folic acid supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial. American of Journal Clinical Nutrition 69:99-104, 1999.
- den Heijer Met al. Vitamin supplementation reduces blood homocysteine levels: a controlled trial in patients with venous thrombosis and healthy volunteers. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 18:356-61, 1998.
- Doshi S et al. Folic acid improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease via mechanisms largely independent of homocysteine lowering. Circulation 105(1):22-26, 2002.
- Friso S et al. Low plasma vitamin B-6 concentrations and modulation of coronary artery disease risk. American of Journal Clinical Nutrition 79(6):992-998, 2004.
- Gouni-Berthold I and Berthold H. Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent. American Heart Journal 143:356-365, 2002.
- Hatano T et al. Flavan dimers with lipase inhibitory activity from Cassia nomame Phytochemistry 46 (5): 893-900, 1997.
- Kitanaka S. and Takido M. Demethyltorosaflavones C and D from Cassia nomame. Phytochemistry 31:(8) 2927-2929, 1992.
- Mas R et al. Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and additional coronary risk factors. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 65: 439-47, 1999.
- McCaddon A et al. Effect of supplementation with folic-acid on relation between plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12. Lancet 360:173, 2002.
- McCarty M et al. Policosanol safely down-regulates HMG-CoA reductase - potential as a component of the Esselstyn regimen. Medical Hypotheses 59(3):268-79, 2002. Review.
- Moghadasian M. Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis: clinical and experimental evidence. American Journal of Medicine 107: 588-94, 1999. Review.
- Normen L et al. Soy sterol esters and beta-sitostanol ester as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in human small bowel. American Journal Clinical Nutrition 71: 908-13, 2000.
- Rigelsky J et al. Hawthorn: pharmacology and therapeutic uses. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 59(5):417-22, 2002. Review.
- Schwinger R et al. Crataegus special extract WS 1442 increases force of contraction in human myocardium cAMP- independently. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 35(5):700-707, 2000.
- Sinal C and Gonzalez F. Guggulsterone: an old approach to a new problem. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 13:275-6, 2002.
- Singh R et al. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 4(8):659-664, 1994.
- Tilvis R et al. Serum plant sterols and their relation to cholesterol absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43:92-97, 1986.
- Title M et al. Effect of folic acid and antioxidant vitamins on endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 36:758-765, 2000.
- Urizar N et al. A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science 296(5573):1703-6, 2002.
- Urizar N et al. Gugulipid: a natural cholesterol-lowering agent. Annual Review in Nutrition 23:303-13, 2003. Review.
- Van den Berg M et al. Combined vitamin B-6 plus folic acid therapy in young patients with arteriosclerosis and hyperhomocysteinemia. Journal Vascular Surgery 20(6):933-940, 1994.
- van Oort F et al. Folic acid and reduction of plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response study. American of Journal Clinical Nutrition 77:1318-23, 2003.
- Wald D et al. Randomized trial of folic acid supplementation and serum homocysteine levels. Archives of Internal Medicine 61:695-700, 2001.
- Wang X et al. The hypolipidemic natural product Commiphora mukul and its component guggulsterone inhibit oxidative modification of LDL. Atherosclerosis 172(2):239-246, 2004.
- Ward M et al. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 90:519-24, 1997.
- Woo K et al. Long-term improvement in homocysteine levels and arterial endothelial function after 1-year folic acid supplementation. American Journal of Medicine 112(7):535-539, 2002.