Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones. Isotonix Calcium Plus provides the body with an optimal blend of calcium, vitamin D3, magnesium, vitamin C and boron in an efficient isotonic solution that is readily absorbed by the body. Isotonix dietary supplements are a replica of the body's own fluids, such as tears, plasma and breast milk. All fluids in the human body have a certain concentration, which is called the osmotic pressure. The body's common osmotic pressure, which is isotonic, allows a consistent maintenance of all body tissues. In order for a substance to be used in the body's metabolism, it must be changed to the isotonic state.*
The efficiency of absorption is also affected by the digestive system. All substances that are used in the stomach go through a degradation process (breakdown) before they can be passed through the opening from the stomach to the small intestine to allow absorption. The digestive process can cause substances to lose some nutritive value, and this whole process takes time!
The secret of the isotonic process is probably now becoming clear! When an isotonic substance enters the body, it will be absorbed into the bloodstream rapidly. With isotonic fluids, little nutritive value is lost making the absorption of nutrients highly efficient. There is nothing artificial about it. An isotonic fluid is nature's own nutrient delivery system.
Isotonix Calcium Plus paves the way for powerful results since it is in an isotonic form rather than a tablet. Calcium in tablet form is difficult for your body to absorb. People may fail to absorb tablet calcium supplements because the calcium supplement is not blended with vitamin D and magnesium; these are necessary to aid in the absorption and use of calcium.
Even if the calcium tablet is blended correctly, it may be difficult for the body to utilize or break down the calcium. One explanation may be that many calcium brands use calcium from eggshell or oyster shell. These may not be well absorbed by the body. Another reason calcium may not be absorbed from a tablet is because of DCP, which is a binding agent used to hold the tablet together. DCP does not break down in the body.
In addition to binders, some calcium supplements may have additives such as chlorine and other chemicals. Even assuming no binders are used in the calcium tablet, the body must still break down a hard-pressed tablet into a usable form. If the tablet cannot be broken down sufficiently in the stomach, then the calcium will not be absorbed. If you can't break down the calcium, your body is robbed of the calcium needed to support bodily functions.
Ordinary calcium tablets require stomach acid to dissolve their compounds, but Isotonix Calcium Plus has no need of stomach acid to be utilized. It delivers an efficient calcium solution that is more readily absorbed by the intestine. Its natural orange-mango flavor is preferable to the chalky taste of typical chewable calcium wafers or tablets.
Many calcium supplements exist in the marketplace, but only Market America's Isotonix Calcium Plus delivers a potent package of calcium and complementary nutrients through an isotonic system of delivery. This translates into a lower cost overall when compared to calcium supplements in pill form by making more of the active ingredients available to the body. Don't be misled by ingredient amounts. What really counts is the amount of active ingredients that your body can ultimately use.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product(s) is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Dynamic role of Calcium
Essential building block for maintaining strong bones, healthy teeth and gums
- Supports skeletal health
- Promotes normal regulation of enzyme and hormone production
- Supports cardiovascular health
- Adequate calcium and vitamin D as part of a healthful diet, along with physical activity, may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later life
- Plays a critical role in the normal contraction of skeletal and heart muscles
- Supports normal muscle use and performance
- Helps to maintain healthy immune functions and general wellbeing
- Helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels
- Supports proper nerve conduction
- Promotes normal hormone secretion
- Helps to ease the discomfort of PMS
- Promotes normal blood clotting
- Supports healthy blood sugar levels
- Supports healthy body weight
- Supports healthy pregnancy and fetal development
Gluten Free - the finished product contains no detectable gluten
Vegetarian -Isotonix Calcium Plus is a vegetarianproduct
No Detectable GMO - the finished product contains no detectable geneticallymodified organisms
Drinkable Supplements - easy-to-swallow supplements in liquid form areimmediately available to the body for absorption.
Isotonix Delivery System
Isotonix - the World's Most Advanced Nutraceuticals
Isotonic, which means “same pressure,” bears the same chemical resemblance of the body’s blood, plasma and tears. All fluids in the body have a certain concentration, referred to as osmotic pressure. The body’s common osmotic pressure, which is isotonic, allows a consistent maintenance of body tissues. In order for a substance to be absorbed and used in the body’s metabolism, it must be transported in an isotonic state.
Isotonix dietary supplements are delivered in an isotonic solution. This means that the body has less work to do in obtaining maximum absorption. The isotonic state of the suspension allows nutrients to pass directly into the small intestine and be rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream.With Isotonix products, little nutritive value is lost, making the absorption of nutrients highly efficient while delivering maximum results.
Calcium 750 mg (Carbonate, Lactate, Phosphate, Sulfate, Citrate)
The highest concentration of calcium is found in milk. Other foods rich in calcium include vegetables such as collard greens, Chinese cabbage, mustard greens, broccoli, bok choy and tofu. Calcium is an essential mineral with a wide range of biological roles. Calcium exists in bone primarily in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2).
Hydroxyapatite accounts for approximately 40 percent of bone weight. The skeleton has a structural requisite and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Apart from being a major component of bones and teeth, calcium supports normal muscle contraction, nerve health, heart rhythms, blood coagulation, glandular secretion, energy production and immune system function.*
Sufficient daily calcium intake is necessary for maintaining optimal bone density, healthy bones and teeth and has been shown to ease the discomfort of PMS in women. When the body does not get enough calcium per day, it draws calcium from your bones.
The amount of calcium in the blood is regulated by PTH (parathyroid hormone). High levels of calcium in the body correlate with normal cardiovascular health and normal cholesterol levels. In the American Dietetic Association Journal, a study revealed that calcium helped middle-aged women to maintain healthy weight levels.*
Magnesium 200 mg (Oxide, Carbonate)
Foods rich in magnesium include unpolished grains, nuts and green vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are potent sources of magnesium because of their chlorophyll content. Meats, starches, dairy products and refined and processed foods contain low amounts of magnesium. The average daily magnesium intake in the U.S. for males nine years and older is estimated to be about 323 milligrams; for females nine years and older, it is estimated to be around 228 milligrams. Recent research shows that our diets are magnesium deficient.
Magnesium is a component of the mineralized part of bone and supports the normal metabolism of potassium and calcium in adults. It helps maintain normal levels of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, adrenaline and insulin. It also supports the normal transport of calcium inside the cell for utilization. Magnesium promotes the normal functioning of muscle and nervous tissue and the normal synthesis of all proteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, lipids and carbohydrates. Magnesium helps combat oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
Magnesium supports normal energy release, regulation of the body temperature, nerve function, adaptation to stress and metabolism. Importantly, magnesium also supports the body’s ability to build healthy bones and teeth and develop muscles. It works together with calcium and vitamin D to help keep bones strong. Magnesium, when combined with calcium, helps support the heart muscle, helps maintain a regular heartbeat and helps maintain normal blood pressure.
Manganese 1 mg (Sulfate)
Manganese is a mineral found in large quantities in both plant and animal matter. The most valuable dietary sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables and teas. Manganese is concentrated in the bran of grains, which is often removed during processing.
Only trace amounts of this element can be found in human tissue. Manganese is predominantly stored in the bones, liver, kidney and pancreas. It supports the normal formation of connective tissue, bones, blood-clotting factors and sex hormones. It supports normal fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption and blood sugar regulation. Manganese also promotes normal brain and nerve function.
Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Antioxidants scavenge free radicals that can cause premature aging and oxidative stress to the body. These particles occur naturally in the body but can possibly contribute to the aging process. Antioxidants such as MnSOD can neutralize free radicals.
Some experts estimate that as many as 37 percent of Americans do not get the recommended daily amounts of manganese in their diet. This may be due to the fact that whole grains are a major source of dietary manganese, and many Americans consume refined grains more often than whole grains. Refined grains provide half the amount of manganese as whole grains.
Vitamin B2 4 mg (Riboflavin-5-Phosphate)
Vitamin B2 is found in liver, dairy products, dark green vegetables and some types of seafood. Vitamin B2 serves as a co-enzyme, working with other B vitamins. It promotes healthy red blood cell formation, supports the nervous system, respiration, antibody production and normal human growth. It supports healthy skin, nails, hair growth and promotes the normal regulation of thyroid activity. Vitamin B2 supports the normal process of turning food into energy as a part of the electron transport chain, driving cellular energy on the micro-level. Riboflavin can be useful for pregnant or lactating women, as well as athletes due to their higher caloric needs. Vitamin B2 supports the normal breakdown of fats while promoting the normal activation of B6 and folic acid. Vitamin B2 is water-soluble and cannot be stored by the body except in insignificant amounts. It must be replenished daily.
Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant. The riboflavin coenzymes also support the transformation of vitamin B6 and folic acid into their active forms and for the conversion of tryptophan into niacin.
Vitamin C 58 mg (Ascorbic Acid)
The best food sources of vitamin C include all citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruit, lemons and tangerines), strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, peppers and cantaloupe. Vitamin C is a "fragile" vitamin and can be easily destroyed by cooking or exposure of food to oxygen.
Vitamin C promotes a vitamin "sparing" effect, supporting your body’s ability to utilize multiple vitamins and minerals such as thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, B12, retinaldehyde and alpha-tocopherol and the mineral calcium. It's also a cofactor or supporter in the normal metabolism of folic acid, some amino acids and hormones. Being an effective antioxidant, it also supports iron absorption from the small intestine. Vitamin C supports vitamin E in cell membranes. It supports the normal synthesis of collagen. Vitamin C supports cardiovascular health, normal cholesterol levels and supports a healthy immune system.
Vitamin C has become the world's most popular vitamin. One reason is its ability to support the immune system. The most convincing evidence suggesting the need for vitamin C supplementation is based on the fact that humans are incapable of producing vitamin C in their bodies.
Low intakes of vitamin C are common in the United States. Stress may also account for reduced vitamin C levels in many Americans. Smoking and some drugs may also impair the body's ability to absorb vitamin C. Since it is water-soluble, vitamin C is flushed from the body each day. Since humans don't always eat foods containing an adequate amount of vitamin C, it often is beneficial to take a supplement.
Vitamin D3 1,000 IU (Cholecalciferol)
Regular sunlight exposure is the main way that most humans get their vitamin D. Food sources of vitamin D include vitamin D-fortified milk (100 IU per cup), cod liver oil and fatty fish such as salmon, and small amounts are found in egg yolks and liver.
Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and supports the production of several proteins involved in calcium absorption and storage. Vitamin D works with calcium to promote strong, hard bones. It supports normal transport of calcium out of the osteoblasts into the extra-cellular fluid and in the kidneys. It also promotes normal calcium and phosphate re-uptake through the renal tubules and intestinal epithelium. It supports normal skin cell growth and promotes normal producing of insulin by the pancreas.
Boron 1 mg (Sodium Borate)
Boron is a mineral found at high levels in plant foods such as dried fruits, nuts, dark green, leafy vegetables, applesauce, grape juice and cooked dried beans and peas. Boron is found in most tissues, but mainly in the bone, spleen and thyroid. Boron supports normal bone and hormone metabolism. Boron supports the body’s ability to build and maintain healthy bones. It also helps retain adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium to promote proper bone mineralization. Boron is an essential cofactor for the converting vitamin D to its active form. It enhances the maintenance of healthy cell membranes, proper mental functioning and alertness, and supports normal serum estrogen levels and ionized calcium.
Potassium 220 mg (Bicarbonate, Citrate)
Potassium is an electrolyte stored in the muscles. Foods rich in potassium include bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, avocado, raw spinach, cabbage and celery. Potassium is an essential macromineral that helps maintain fluid balance in the body. It also plays a role in a wide variety of biochemical and physiological processes. Among other things, potassium supports the normal transmission of nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, production of energy, synthesis of nucleic acids, maintenance of intracellular tonicity and maintenance of normal blood pressure.
In 1928, it was first suggested that high potassium intake could help maintain cardiovascular health. Potassium supports normal muscle relaxation and insulin release. It also promotes glycogen and protein synthesis. Potassium is an electrolyte that promotes normal heartbeat. Potassium is important in releasing energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates during metabolism. Potassium supports the body’s ability to regulate water balance, recover from exercise and eliminate wastes.
Some symptoms of potassium deficiency include poor circulation, swelling, sleep difficulty, intestinal discomfort, muscle weakness and water retention. Sodium and potassium are two of the most important ions in maintaining the homeostatic equilibrium of the body fluids.
I'm not an elderly woman. Why should I take a calcium supplement?
Calcium plays a huge role in regulating many major bodily processes with implications that extend far beyond the age factor. Other than elderly women who may be susceptible to bone loss, younger women, pregnant and lactating women, growing children and men should take a calcium supplement.
Younger women need more calcium to build up the strength of their bones. Pregnant and lactating women need extra calcium, at least 1200 mg/day to foster the healthy growth of new cells and of breast milk. Growing children need extra calcium, sometimes two to four times as much as an adult to assist with new bone development and proper growth. Finally, those with poor cardiovascular health have been found to have low levels of calcium intake. Studies have confirmed that calcium supplementation supports heart health.*Why should I take calcium?
According to the Surgeon General, taking a calcium supplement daily is key to preventing and treating calcium deficiency and to helping reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Currently, osteoporosis affects over one-third of postmenopausal women in this country. Recent clinical statistics also indicate that aging men are also likely to become susceptible to osteoporosis.*
Everyone needs calcium. Practically no one ingests enough calcium in their daily diet. Besides being helpful in supporting and maintaining bone integrity, calcium serves a dynamic role as a mineral. It's very important in supporting the activity of many bodily enzymes and maintaining proper fluid balance. Isotonix Calcium Plus also promotes the normal contraction of skeletal and muscle.I've heard calcium is great for PMS? How so?
PMS is an undesirable influence on physical and psychological peace of mind. Recent studies have found that over 70 percent of relationships are affected in some way by PMS. So PMS impacts nearly everyone, including men! Supplementation with calcium can reduce PMS symptoms. In a study conducted by the US Department of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research Center, it was found that women on a high calcium diet had decreased irritability, cramping and bloating associated with PMS. Ovarian hormones affect calcium, magnesium and vitamin D metabolism. Estrogen regulates calcium metabolism, intestinal calcium absorption and parathyroid gene expression and secretion, triggering fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. As a woman menstruates, her hormones are "all over the place." Clinical trials in women with PMS have found that calcium supplementation helps reduce mood and somatic symptoms associated with PMS.*What is the suggested age to begin taking Isotonix® Calcium Plus?
Isotonix Calcium Plus is recommended for all adults age 18 or older. If we only absorb 300 to 400 mg of calcium at a time, why does one capful contain 750 mg? There are 750 mg of calcium in 2 capfuls of Isotonix Calcium Plus. Therefore, one capful equals 375 mg of calcium.Why is Isotonix Calcium Plus better than other calcium products?
It is better because of the Isotonix delivery system. The secret of the isotonic process is probably now becoming clear! When an isotonic substance enters the body, it will be absorbed into the bloodstream rapidly. With isotonic fluids, little nutritive value is lost making the absorption of nutrients highly efficient. There is nothing artificial about it. An isotonic fluid is nature's own nutrient delivery system.Why is there a sandy residue left in the cup after mixing with water?
Everyone's water is different; some tap water has a higher concentration of minerals and the pH level of water differs depending on geographic location and the quality of the tap water, which can lead to inconsistencies with the saturation point of a solution. To ensure that our solutions reach the point of saturation, regardless of the pH or mineral levels in water, we have maximized the formulation amounts so that every serving of Isotonix Calcium Plus contains the correct amount of calcium. The residue left in the cup is due to over-saturation which is common in tap water with a higher pH level or a higher mineral content.What form of calcium should I take?
The best form of calcium is calcium carbonate which is utilized by the body more efficiently, due to the fact that it increases the absorbability. Additionally, calcium is more readily absorbed by the body when in combination with magnesium, manganese, vitamin C, vitamin B2, boron and potassium. Isotonix Calcium Plus is formulated with calcium carbonate and the additional vitamins and minerals needed in an isotonic form which allows for maximum utilization and absorption of calcium by the body and reduces the nutritive loss found in many calcium tablets or capsules.
- Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follman D, et al. Dietary calcium and blood pressure: meta—analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 124:825-831.
- Altura BM, Altura BT. Role of magnesium and calcium in alcohol-induced hypertension and strokes as probed by in vivo television microscopy, digital image microscopy, optical spectroscopy, 31P-NMR, spectroscopy and a unique magnesium ion-selective electrode. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1994; 18:1057-1068.
- Baly DL, Schneiderman JS, Garcia-Welsh AL. Effect of manganese deficiency on insulin binding, glucose transport and metabolism in rat adipocytes. J Nutr. 1990; 120:1075-1079.
- Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med 1999;340:101-107.
- Baron JA, Tosteson TD, Wargovich MJ, et al. Calcium supplementation and rectal mucosal proliferation: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:1303-1307.
- Baxter GF, Sumeray MS, Walker JM. Infant size and magnesium: insights into LIMIT-2 and ISIS-4 from experimental studies. Lancet. 1996; 348:1424-1426.
- Beattie JH, Peace HS. The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 1993 May;69(3):871-84.
- Bell L, Halstenson CE, Halstenson CJ, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med. 1992; 152:2441-2444.
- Bostick RM, Kushi LH, Wu Y, et al. Relation of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy food intake to ischemic heart disease mortality among postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149:151-160.
- Britton J, Pavord I, Richards K, et al. Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyper-reactivity in a random adult population sample. Lancet. 1994; 344:357-362.
- Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, et al. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125:961-968.
- Casscells W. Magnesium and myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1994; 343:807-809.
- Christiansen CW, Rieder MA, Silverstein EL, Gencheff NE. Magnesium sulfate reduces myocardial infarct size when administered before but not after coronary reperfusion in a canine model. Circulation. 1995; 92:2617-2621.
- Christin Marandino, Vegetarian Times, August 1998 Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, et al. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk of kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med. 1997; 126:497-504.
- Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density on men and women 65 years of age and older. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337:670-676.
- de Lourdes Lima M, Cruz T, Carreiro Pousada J, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21:682-686.
- Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
- Durlach J, Durlach V, Bac P, et al. Magnesium and therapeutics. Magnes Res. 1994; 7:313-328.
- Elisaf M, Merkouropoulos M, Tsianos EV. Siamopoulos KC. Pathogenetic mechanisms of hypomagnesemia in alcoholic patients. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1995; 9:210-214.
- Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 78:177-181.
- Garland CF, Garland FC, Gorham ED. Calcium and vitamin D. Their potential roles in colon and breast cancer prevention. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1999; 889:107-119.
- Gong H, Amemiya T. Optic nerve changes in manganese-deficient rats. Exp Eye Res. 1999; 68:313-320.
- Gullestad L, Dolva LO, Soyland E, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves metabolic variables and muscle strength in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992; 16:986-990.
- Health & Medicine. (Statistical Data Included) American Fitness, July, 1999 Tannen RL. Effects of potassium on blood pressure control. Ann Intern Med. 1983; 98(part 2):773-780.
- Heaney RP. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000; 19(2 Suppl):83S-99S.
- Hussain S, Ali SF. Manganese scavenges superoxide and hydroxyl radicals: an in vitro study in rats. Neuroscience Letters. 1999; 261:21-24.
- ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulfate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1995; 345:669-685.
- Jorde R, Sundsfjord J, Haug E, et al. Relation between low calcium intake, parathyroid hormone, and blood pressure. Hypertension 2000;35:1154-1159.
- Kao WHL, Folsom AR, Nieto J, et al. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (editorial). Arch. Int Med. 1999; 159:2151-2159.
- Keen CL, Ensunsa JL, Watson MH, et al. Nutritional aspects of manganese from experimental studies. Neurotoxicol. 1999; 20:213-223.
- Krieger D, Krieger S, Jansen O, et al. Manganese and chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Lancet. 1995; 346:270-274.
- Lim R, Herzog WR. Magnesium for cardiac patients: is it a valuable treatment supplement? Contemp Int Med. 1998; 10:6-9.
- Lipkin M, Newmark H. Effect of added dietary calcium on colonic epithelial-cell proliferation in subjects at high risk for familial colonic cancer. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313:1381-1384.
- Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG. A comparison of magnesium sulfate with phenytoin for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333:201-205.
- Martini LA. Magnesium supplementation and bone turnover. Nutr Rev. 1999; 57:227-229.
- Mauskop A, Altura BM. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. Clin Neurosci. 1998; 5:24-27.
- Naghii MR, Wall PM, Samman S. The boron content of selected foods and the estimation of its daily intake among free-living subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996 Dec;15(6):614-9.
- Newnham RE. Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102:83-85
- Nielsen FH. Studies on the relationship between boron and magnesium which possibly affects the formation and maintenance of bones. Magnes Trace Elem. 1990;9:61-69
- Nielsen FH. Ultratrace minerals. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1999:283-303.
- Oginni LM, Sharp CA, Worsfold M, et al. Healing of rickets after calcium supplementation. Lancet. 1999; 353:296-297.
- Orchard TJ. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes mellitus (editorial). Arch Int Med. 1999; 159:2119-2120.
- Paolisso G, Sgamabato S, Pizza G, et al. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1989; 12:265-269.
- Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996; 16:257-263.
- Penland J.G. The importance of boron nutrition for brain and psychological function. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998; 66:299-317.
- Recker RR. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313:70-73.
- Reid IR, Ames RW, Evans MC, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328:460-464.
- Rivlin RS. Magnesium deficiency and alcohol intake: mechanisms, clinical significance and possible relation to cancer development (a review). J Am Coll Nutr. 1994; 13:416-423.
- Roberts JM. Magnesium for preeclampsia and eclampsia. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333:250-251.
- Roffe C, Fletcher S, Woods KL. Investigation of the effects of intravenous magnesium sulphate on cardiac rhythm in acute myocardial infarction. Br Heart J. 1994; 71:141-145.
- Saris N-EL, Mervaala E, Karppanen H, et al. Magnesium. An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects (review). Clinica Chimica Acta. 2000; 294:1-26.
- Shils ME. Magnesium. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1999:169-192.
- Singh MA. Combined exercise and dietary intervention to optimize body composition in aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:378-93.
- Singh N, Singh PN, Hershman JM. Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of levothyroxine. JAMA. 2000; 283:2822-2825.
- Sojka JE. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 1995; 53:71-80. Strause L, Saltman P, Glowacki J. The effect of deficiencies of manganese and copper on osteo-induction and on resorption of bone particles in rats. Calcif Tissue Int. 1987; 41:145-150
- Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr. 1994; 124:1060-1064.
- Sutherland B, Strong P, King JC. Determining human dietary requirements for boron. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Winter;66(1-3):193-204.
- Talbot JR, Guardo P, Seccia S, et al. Calcium bioavailability and parathyroid hormone acute changes after oral intake of dairy and nondairy products in healthy volunteers. Osteoporosis Int. 1999; 10:137-142.
- Tobian L. Salt and hypertension. Lessons from animal models that relate to human hypertension. Hypertension. 1991; 17:152-158.
- Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. A review of clinical implications. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 156:1143-1148.
- Volpe SL, Taper LJ, Meacham S. The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review. Magnes Res. 1993;6:291-296
- Wargovich MJ, Eng VWS, Newmark HL. Calcium inhibits the damaging and compensatory proliferative effects of fatty acids on mouse colon epithelium. Cancer Lett. 1984; 23:253-258.
- Weaver CM, Heaney RP. Calcium. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins; 1999:141-155.
- Wolf RL, Cauley JA, Baker CE, et al. Factors associated with calcium absorption efficiency in pre- and perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72:466-471.
- Woods KL, Fletcher S. Long-term outcome after intravenous magnesium sulphate in suspected acute myocardial infarction: the second Leicester Intravenous Magnesium Intervention Trial (LIMIT-2). Lancet. 1994; 343:816-819.
- Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, et al. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J. 2000; 14:1132-1138.