Isotonix OPC-3® is an isotonic-capable food supplement that is made from a combination of bilberry, grape seed, red wine and pine bark extracts, and citrus extract bioflavonoids, all found to be powerful antioxidants. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are bioflavonoids (complex organic plant compounds) found in fruits, vegetables and certain tree barks that provide exceptional nutritional benefits to the human body. Studies have shown OPCs to be up to 20 times more powerful than vitamin C and 50 times more powerful than vitamin E in neutralizing free radicals. Isotonix OPC-3 contains the only isotonic form of Pycnogenol® in the world. Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree and the most clinically researched and potent bioflavonoid.*
Isotonic, which means “same pressure,” bears the same chemical resemblance of the body’s blood, plasma and tears. All fluids in the body have a certain concentration, referred to as osmotic pressure. The body’s common osmotic pressure, which is isotonic, allows a consistent maintenance of body tissues. In order for a substance to be absorbed and used in the body’s metabolism, it must be transported in an isotonic state.
Isotonix® dietary supplements are delivered in an isotonic solution. This means that the body has less work to do to in obtaining maximum absorption. The isotonic state of the suspension allows nutrients to pass directly into the small intestine and be rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. With Isotonix products, little nutritive value is lost, making the absorption of nutrients highly efficient while delivering maximum results.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product(s) is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
The most powerful antioxidant supplement on the market today! Provides complete antioxidant protection.
- Promotes cardiovascular health PLUS:
- Helps maintain healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels
- Helps maintain healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins
- Promotes healthy blood vessel dilation
- Demonstrates anti-inflammatory activity and promotes joint health
- Combats free radicals
- Helps maintain joint flexibility
- Helps reduce mild menstrual cramping and abdominal pain
- Helps support visual health/visual acuity
- Potent free radical scavenger
- Promotes healthy blood vessel dilation
- Promotes healthy nitric oxide levels
- Supports a healthy complexion
- Supports healthy blood glucose levels
- Supports healthy platelet activity
- Supports healthy sperm quality
- Promotes sinus comfort
- Supports immune health
Gluten Free - Vegetarian - No Detectable GMO - Pycnogenol
Isotonix OPC-3 Advantage
A unique combination of five bioflavonoids, one of which is the most clinically researched pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, Isotonix OPC-3 has been clinically studied proving its bioavailability and effectiveness. Many antioxidants claim Pycnogenol as an ingredient, but Isotonix OPC-3 has the only isotonic form of Pycnogenol in the world, adding to its antioxidant capabilities and free radical defense. In addition, Isotonix OPC-3 helps promote cardiovascular health by helping maintain healthy blood vessels and promoting healthy circulation. It also demonstrates anti-inflammatory activity and provides support for visual health.
What is Isotonix OPC-3®?
Isotonix OPC-3 is a dietary supplement that bears some of the most powerful bioflavonoids currently known to research scientists. These bioflavonoids are scientifically termed oligomeric proanthocyanidins, commonly abbreviated OPCs. The purest and best-researched OPCs chosen for OPC-3 are prepared from grape seed, red wine, bilberries, Pycnogenol from pine bark and citrus fruit. This combination of powerful OPCs is unique to OPC-3, as is the Isotonix® delivery system, which enables rapid and highly efficient absorption of the OPCs. Isotonix OPC-3 has been shown to provide a variety of health benefits including, but not limited to, combating free radicals, demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity, helping maintain healthy cholesterol levels, helping maintain healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins, helping maintain joint flexibility, helping promote/support cardiovascular health, helping reduce mild menstrual cramping, helping support visual health/visual acuity, scavenging free radicals, promoting healthy blood vessel dilation, promoting healthy nitric oxide levels, supporting a healthy complexion, supporting healthy blood glucose levels, supporting healthy platelet activity and supporting healthy sperm quality.*
What is a bioflavonoid?
Bioflavonoids are complex organic plant compounds. Plants and fruits differ in colors based on the specific bioflavonoids they contain. An increasing number of clinical studies have shown how bioflavonoids support health. Bioflavonoids found in OPCs play a key role in cardiovascular health and maintaining vascular integrity. Bioflavonoids have been shown to demonstrate support for healthy circulation and cell vitality. Normal collagen renewal is promoted, which supports firmness of the skin, joint cartilage and connective tissue.
What sets Isotonix OPC-3 apart from other bioflavonoid products?
Isotonix OPC-3 offers scientifically supported OPCs, found to be the most powerful antioxidants for human health. In addition to being powerful antioxidants, these individual OPCs have been shown to provide a myriad of specific health benefits. This science-driven selection of OPCs is unique to OPC-3, as is the Isotonix delivery system, which enables rapid and highly efficient absorption of the OPCs. The potent nutrients, in combination with the highly effective delivery system, makes OPC-3 the most powerful free radical scavenging product available.*
Is Isotonix OPC-3 safe?
Yes. OPCs are among the most valuable constituents of a healthy human diet. OPCs have been researched and used for over 30 years throughout Europe. OPC-3 contains pure OPCs in combination with carefully balanced quantities of potassium and fructose/glucose, which set up the isotonic delivery system. OPC-3 is free of harmful chemicals, preservatives and alcohol. OPC-3 should be taken as directed.
How long does it take to benefit from Isotonix OPC-3?
Many effects of OPC-3 start to work after a single serving. Studies with human volunteers have found that the health benefits of OPCs may take a while to occur. This may be the case for health concerns resulting from everyday wear and tear, where time simply has taken its toll. Taking Isotonix OPC-3 daily enables the body to sustain a consistent antioxidant defense.
What is the advantage of taking Isotonix OPC-3 regularly?
OPC-3 not only provides the most potent OPCs available, the unique Isotonix delivery system ensures that the small intestine rapidly absorbs the OPCs, which are available in the blood stream within minutes. This is because the OPCs are delivered in liquid form. The liquid is isotonic, which means it duplicates the environment in our cells and blood stream regarding pH, electrolytes, etc. This enables the OPCs to enter the body easily and with a high level of bioavailability. Because of the rapid absorbability, the body should benefit from Isotonix OPC-3 almost immediately.
Why should everyone take Isotonix OPC-3?
Everyone is subject to free radical damage and oxidative stress. Free radicals develop as byproducts of physiological processes that occur within the body. This damage does not cause noticeable harm at first, yet may add up over the years. This process is largely responsible for the aging process. Free radicals have been linked directly to premature aging, poor circulation, poor heart health and poor immune health. OPCs are the most powerful natural free radical neutralizers and you get the best of all OPCs by taking Isotonix OPC-3. Regular use every day is vital for keeping free radicals in check and a long, healthy life. Laboratory studies have shown that OPCs are more powerful antioxidants than vitamin C and vitamin E.
Can you take Isotonix OPC-3 in soda, juice, coffee, etc., rather than water?
It is possible but not recommended. This product should only be taken as directed. In order to keep the product in an isotonic form and to achieve the maximum delivery speed, it needs to be taken on an empty stomach with 2 oz. of water per capful. Mixing the products with anything else besides other Isotonix products and water slows down the delivery time and may affect the percentage of uptake.
I am healthy and athletic ; why should I take Isotonix OPC-3? Everyone is vulnerable to the aging process caused by continuous free radical damage. Athletes tend to be exposed to elevated levels of oxidative stress. Free radicals develop as byproducts during metabolism when calories are processed with oxygen. Athletes inhale 10 to 20 times more oxygen during physical activity over rest periods. The increase in activity creates additional free radicals. In fact, these free radicals are known to limit performance, as free radicals appear to take their toll on muscle tissue. Studies on recreational athletes have shown a 20 percent endurance increase with OPCs, as compared to a control group receiving a placebo. Another study has shown that athletes using OPCs suffered significantly less muscle cramping during and after performing. Isotonix OPC-3 helps to maintain healthy blood flow and this supports oxygen supply to muscles.*
Does OPC-3 have visible benefits?
As OPCs support collagen production in the skin, an increase of smoothness and support of elasticity is the natural result. Such an effect was objectively measured in women aged 40 years and older. Skin smoothness was increased after three months as measured by 3-dimensional topography. It requires patience to show visible effects. It is essential to continuously take OPC-3 to keep skin cells at their peak vitality. On a short-term basis, many people notice a fresher-looking skin complexion. This is a result of healthy blood microcirculation, which helps detoxify the skin and improves the nutrient supply. Regular use of OPC-3 helps defy photo-aging of the skin.
Does OPC-3 have a rejuvenating effect?
The damage caused by free radicals adds up with time. A cause for more worry is the fact that your body's own mechanisms to keep free radicals in check decline with increasing age — when you need them the most. Suddenly, we find ourselves confronted with some typical age-related problems. Some cells of our body are more vulnerable to free radicals than others. OPC-3 has the ability to go in and do a knockout job, cleaning and scavenging the free radicals that feast on cellular energy, and take it away from vital processes.*
What are the cardiovascular health benefits of OPCs?
Scientist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, who received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of vitamin C, discovered OPCs. Szent-Györgyi found that OPCs work in a similar fashion. They strengthen the walls of arteries, veins and capillaries.*
In the past 20 years scientists discovered that OPCs bear a lot more benefits for the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular intake of powerful OPC antioxidants supports a healthy cardiovascular system. OPCs appear to be particularly helpful in maintaining healthy cholesterol levels and healthy arteries. Pycnogenol® in Isotonix OPC-3 plays a key role, as it promotes healthy nitric oxide (NO) levels. NO is a tiny molecule which serves as a key messenger molecule in the blood stream. It promotes relaxation of smooth muscle-surrounding arteries and supports normal artery diameter and blood flow. Healthy NO levels help maintain normal blood pressure. This benefit has been explicitly demonstrated with Pycnogenol in two clinical studies. NO also promotes healthy blood platelet activity thus preserving a normal, fluid environment. OPCs are especially helpful for smokers. OPC-3 packs a powerful punch when it comes to maintaining excellent cardiovascular health.*
How can OPC-3 help my eyes?
Loss of eyesight is the disability people fear more than all others. Isotonix OPC-3 contains specific OPCs successfully tested for eye health. Pycnogenol has been shown to support healthy capillaries in the eye. Isotonix OPC-3 helps maintain visual health and supports visual acuity.
Does OPC-3 have benefits specifically for women?
Some OPCs were shown in clinical trials to help women who suffer from mild pain and cramping during the menstrual period. When women were supplemented with OPCs, starting at least a week before their menstrual period, pain values were found to be significantly lowered.
What exactly is Pycnogenol?
Pycnogenol is the registered trademark of Horphag Research (UK) Ltd. for a standardized extract of bark of the French maritime pine tree. Pycnogenol is particularly renowned for its extensive clinical research with more than 120 studies published in peer-reviewed medical journals. The flavonoids in Pycnogenol not only act as powerful antioxidants, they also appear to promote the normal generation of nitric oxide (NO). NO plays a key role in regulating cardiovascular health. Nitric oxide promotes the normal relaxation of arteries, supports normal diameter of blood vessels and supports helps maintain healthy blood pressure and circulation. NO promotes normal platelet activity allowing the blood to maintain a normal, fluid viscosity. Pycnogenol has been awarded various patents for its ability to support healthy platelet activity.*
How do I take OPC-3?
Each capful of Isotonix OPC-3 contains 125 milligrams of bioflavonoids, of which 75 milligrams are oligomeric proanthocyanidins in an isotonic-capable base. That means that the OPC-3 active ingredients will be delivered in the highest concentration to the small intestine, where most absorption of nutrients occurs.
To start using Isotonix OPC-3 for its benefit as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, take two level capfuls for every 150 pounds of body weight for the first seven days. This is referred to as the saturation serving. Then, switch to a daily serving of one capful, per 150 lbs. of body weight, as a maintenance dose. For example, if you weigh 190 pounds, you would take three servings of Isotonix OPC-3 per day for seven days, and then switch to two servings per day for long-term health maintenance. This product should be taken on an empty stomach for the fastest, most effective delivery of the active ingredient.
What is the history of OPCs?
In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier was leading an expedition up the St. Lawrence River. Trapped by bad weather, Cartier and his crew were forced to survive on a ration of salted meat and biscuits. Cartier's crew began to suffer from severe deficiency of vitamin C and showed symptoms of scurvy. Many crew members died before the surviving members encountered a friendly Native American who saved most of their lives. He told them to make a tea from the bark and needles of the pine tree to cure their malady. They complied and, as a result, Cartier and many crew members survived.
Some 400 years later, Professor Jacques Masquelier of the University of Bordeaux, France, read a book by Cartier detailing their expedition. He concluded that pine bark not only contained some vitamin C, but obviously was a good source of bioflavonoids, whose effects are similar to those of vitamin C. Further studies and research revealed that the pine bark contained an array of proanthocyanidins complexes. These compounds were also found in a variety of plants, including grape seeds, cranberries, peanut skin, lemon tree bark and citrus rinds. Masquelier termed the active ingredients of the pine bark "pycnogenols", which today are referred to in the scientific community as oligomeric proanthocyanidins, or OPCs.
Grape Seed Extract (25 mg)
Grape seed extract is typically extracted from the seeds of red grapes (instead of white), which have a high content of compounds known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs). Grape seed extract is extremely rich in polyphenols, compounds with high antioxidant activity. Grape seed extract has been found to maintain healthy cholesterol levels.*
Red Wine Extract (25 mg)
Red wine extract is a powerful antioxidant. This extract is found in grape vines, roots, seeds and stalks, with the highest concentration in the skins. The antioxidant properties of red wine extract contribute to maintaining healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins, and promoting overall cardiovascular health.*
In the late 1990s, scientists took note of a phenomenon among the French. There were very low rates of cardiovascular problems in the provinces where residents consistently ate high fat foods and drank red wine. Scientists concluded that the protective properties of red wine have helped the French maintain cardiovascular health for years and subsequent scientific studies have further shown that the OPCs found in red wine are particularly beneficial for protecting the heart and blood vessels.*
Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) (25 mg)
Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from the bark of the maritime pine tree, which grows exclusively along the coast of southwest France in Les Landes de Gascogne. This unspoiled and natural forest environment is the unique source of pine bark. Pycnogenol is one of the most researched ingredients in the natural product marketplace. Published findings have demonstrated Pycnogenol’s wide array of beneficial effects on the body. Pine bark extract is an all natural combination of procyanidins, bioflavonoids and organic acids.
The extract has three basic properties — it is a powerful antioxidant, selectively binds to collagen and elastin, and promotes the normal production of endothelial nitric oxide, which promotes the normal dilation of blood vessels.*
As one of the most potent natural scavenger of free radicals, Pycnogenol combats many aggressive free radicals before they cause oxidative stress to vital organs. Its super-antioxidant capabilities help support healthy blood platelet activity, support healthy blood glucose levels, reduce mild menstrual cramping and abdominal pain, maintain joint flexibility, promote cardiovascular health, promote healthy sperm quality, maintain healthy cholesterol levels and support a healthy complexion.*
Bilberry Extract (25 mg)
Bilberry extract is derived from the leaves and berry-like fruit of a common European shrub closely related to the blueberry. Extracts of the ripe berry are known to contain flavonoid pigments known as anthocyanins, which are powerful antioxidants. Scientific studies confirm that bilberry extract supports healthy vision and venous circulation. Bilberry extract helps maintain healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins.*
Citrus Extract (Bioflavonoids) (25 mg)
Bioflavonoids are antioxidants found in certain plants that act as light filters, which protect delicate DNA chains and other important macromolecules by absorbing ultraviolet radiation. They have been found to promote cardiovascular health, help maintain healthy circulation by strengthening capillaries, arteries and veins, and demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity.*
- Bayeta, E., et al. Pycnogenol inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Nutrition Research 20: 249-259, 2000.
- Blazsó, G., et al. Anti-inflammatory and superoxide radical scavenging activities of a procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol. and its fractions. Pharm Pharmacol Lett 3: 217-20, 1994
- Cesarone, M., et al. Improvement in Circulation and in Cardiovascular Risk Factors With a Proprietary Isotonic Bioflavanoid Formula OPC-3. Journal Angiology 59: 408-414, 2008.
- Cho, K., et al. Effect of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on proinflammatory cytokine interlukin-1 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264. 7. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 168: 64-71, 2000.
- Cho, K., et al. Inhibition mechanisms of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Annals of the NYAcademy of Sciences 928: 141-156, 2001.
- Devaraj, S., et al. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids 37:931-4, 2002.
- Fine, AM, Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications. Altern Med Rev 5:144-51, 2000.
- Fitzpatrick, D., et al. Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 32: 509-515, 1998.
- Frankel, E., et al. Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein by phenolic substances in red wine. Lancet 341: 454-7, 1993.
- Freedman, J., et al. Select flavonoids and whole juice from purple grapes inhibit platelet function and enhance nitric oxide release. Circulation 103:2792-8, 2001.
- Frémont, L. Biological effects of resveratrol. Life Sciences 66: 663-673, 2000.
- Gulati, O. Pycnogenol® in venous disorders: a review. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 1-13, 1999.
- Hosseini, S., et al. Pycnogenol® in the management of asthma. Journal of Medicinal Food 4: 201-209, 2001. HHHh
- Kohama, T., et al. The treatment of gynecological disorders with Pycnogenol®. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 30-32, 1999.
- Kohama, T., et al. Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 49: 828-32, 2004.
- Liu, X., et al. Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II. Life Sci 75:2505-13, 2004.
- Liu, X., et al. French maritime pine bark extract pycnogenol dose-dependently lowers glucose in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 27: 839, 2004.
- Manna, S., et al. Resveratrol suppresses TNF-Induced activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kB, activator protein-1, and apoptosis: potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation. The Journal of Immunology 164: 6509-19, 2000.
- Maritim, A., et al. Effects of pycnogenol treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:193-9, 2003.
- Miyagi, Y., et al. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids in red wine and grape juice. Am J Cardiol 0:1627-31, 1997.
- Monograph. Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry). Altern Med Rev 6:500-4, 2001.
- Murias M., et al. Resveratrol analogues as selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationship. , 2004.
- Nuttall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect. J Clin Pharm Ther 23: 385-89, 1998.
- Packer, L., et al. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med 27:704-24, 1999. Review.
- Rohdewald, P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:158-68, 2002. Review.
- Rohdewald, P. Pycnogenol®. In "Flavonoids in Health and Disease". Ed. Catherine Rice-Evans and Lester Packer. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998. 405-19.
- Roseff, S., et al. Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. Journal Reproductive Medicine 47: 821-4, 2002.
- Roseff, S., et al. Improvement of sperm quality by Pycnogenol®. European Bulletin of Drug Research 7: 33-6, 1999.
- Saito, M., et al. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1460-4, 1998.
- Schönlau, F., et al. Pycnogenol® for diabetic retinopathy. International Ophthalmology 24: 161-171, 2002.
- Schönlau, F., et al. The cosmeceutical Pycnogenol®. J Appl Cosmetology 20: 241-6, 2002.
- Segger, D. and Schönlau, F. Supplementation with Evelle® improves skin smoothness and elasticity in a double blind, placebo-controlled study with 62 women. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 15:222-26, 2004.
- Shi, J., et al. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food 6:291-9, 2003. Review.
- Sharma, S., et al. Pycnogenol® inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytotherapy Research 17: 66-69, 2003.
- Spadea, L., et al. Treatment of vascular retinopathies with Pycnogenol®. Phytotherapy Research 15: 219-23, 2001.
- Stein, J., et al. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 100:1050-5, 1999.
- Takada, Y., et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents differ in their ability to suppress NF-kappaB activation, inhibition of expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1, and abrogation of tumor cell proliferation. Oncogene 23: 9247-58, 2004.
- Ueda, T., et al. Preventative effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation in the mammalian eye. Ophthalmic Res 28: 184-92, 1996.
- Wallerath, T., et al. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 106:1652-8, 2002.
- Watson, R. Pycnogenol® and cardiovascular health. Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine 1: 27-32, 2003.
- Wei, Z., et al. Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defense. Redox Report 3: 219-24, 1997.
- Yamakoshi, J., et al. Proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds attenuates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 142:139-149, 1999.
- Ames, BN, et al. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7915-7922, 1993.
- Bagchi, D, et al. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 95:179-89, 1997.
- Bagchi, D, et al. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Toxicology 148: 187-97, 2000.
- Bagchi, D, et al. Cellular protection with proanthocyanidins derived from grape seed. Ann NY Acad Sci 957:260-70, 2002.
- Cao G, Alessio H, Cultler R. Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assay for antioxidants. Fre Rad Biol & Med 14:301-11, 1993.
- Drew B, Leeuwenburgh C. Aging and the role of reactive nitrogen species. Ann NY Acad Sci 959:66-81, 2002.
- Gibson, L, et al. Effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing urinary tract infections in long-term care facility patients. J Naturopathic Med 2:45-47, 1991.
- Graham DY, Smith JL, Bouvet, AA. What happens to tablets in the stomach. J Pharm Sci 79:420-24, 1990.
- Havsteen B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharm 32:1141-48, 1983.
- Halpern, MJ, et al. Red wine polyphenols and inhibition of platelet aggregation: possible mechanisms, and potential use in health promotion and disease prevention. J Int Med Res 26:171-80, 1998.
- Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Bielinksi D, Martin A, McEwen JJ, Bickford PC. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neuroscience 19: 8114-21, 1999.
- Kay CD, Holub BJ. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) on post-prandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects. Br J Nutr 88: 389-98, 2002.
- Kehrer JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 23:21-48, 1993.
- Koch R. Comparative study of Venostatin and Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytother Res 16:S1-5, 2002.
- Koparker AD, Augsburger LL, Shangraw RF. Intrinsic dissolution rates of tablet fillers and binders and their influence on the dissolution of drugs from tablet formulations. Pharm Res 7:80-85, 1990.
- Mazza G, Kay CD, Cottrell T, Holub BJ. Absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries and serum antioxidant status in human subjects. J Agric Food Chem 50:7731-37, 2002.
- Nesaretnam K, et al. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids 30:1139-43, 1995.
- Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, Lis H, Sharon N. Anti-Escherichia coli adhesion activity of cranberry and blueberry juices. New England J Med 324:1599, 1991.
- Qureshi, A, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 30:1171-77, 1995.
- Rimbach G, Virgili F, Park YC, Packer L. Effect of procyanidins from Pinus maritime on glutathione levels in endothelial cells challenged by 3-morpholinosydnonimine or activated macrophages. Redox Rep 4:171-77, 1999.
- Sobota AE. Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infactions. J Urology 131:1013-1016, 1984.
- Soloway MS, Smith RA. J Am Med Assoc 260:1465, 1988.
- Tomco, A, et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienol in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 30: 1179-83, 1995.
- Zheng W, Wang SY. Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries. J Agric Food Chem 51:502-9, 2003.
- Wilson D et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms. Phytother Res. 24(8):1115-9, 2010.
- Lau B et al. Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma. J Asthma. 41(8):825-32, 2004.
- Choi YH, Yan GH. Pycnogenol® inhibits immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in mast cells. Phytother Res 23: 1691-1695, 2009.
- Sharma SC, Sharma S, Gulati OP. Pycnogenol® inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells. Phytother Res, 17: 66-69, 2003.
- Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S, Sadrzadeh MH, Farid F, Farid R, Watson RR. Pycnogenol® in the management of asthma. J Med Food 4: 201-209, 2001.
- Cheshier, J.E et al. Immunomodulation by Pycnogenol® in retro-virus infected or ethanol-fed mice. Life Sci., 58(5): 87-96, 1996.
- Park, Y.C., Rimbach, G., Saliou, C., Valacchi, G. and Packer, L. Activity of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric flavonoids on NO production, TNF-alpha secretion, and NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. FEBS Letters, 465: 93-97, 2000.
- Rice-Evans CA, Packer L, eds. Flavonoids in Health and Disease. Manhattan, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998.
- Liu, F.J., Zhang, Y.X. and Lau B.H.S. Pycnogenol® enhances immune and haemopoietic functions in senescence-accelerated mice.CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life. Sci., 54: 1168-1172, 1998.