Fibersol-2® (soluble fiber flucose polymer complex) 5,000 mg
Fibersol-2 is a soluble fiber having a positive impact on the elimination of wastes and colon cleansing, as well as helping to maintain balanced bowels, helping support normal bowel regularity and fecal volume, and supporting healthy digestive function. Fibersol-2 is a spray-dried powder made by the pyrolysis and stabilized enzymatic hydrolysis of cornstarch. It is a safe (GRAS) maltodextrin, easily mixed in water and carries no flavor. Fibersol-2 has a very low viscosity, high solubility, low hygroscopicity and clarity in solution. Because it is high in naturally occurring chemical bonds that remain undigested even in the digestive tract, it helps to support overall health by helping to maintain normal cholesterol levels, helping to maintain normal blood glucose levels and promoting immune health.
A general review article by Kazuhiro Ohkuma and Shigeru Wakabayashi (Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, 2000) covered the beneficial properties of Fibersol-2. "Its viscosity is lower than that of a conventional maltodextrin, although both have the same DE value," they noted. "A solution of Fibersol-2 is very clear and stable and does not become cloudy or show signs of any precipitation when kept for long periods of time. It also has very good anti-acid properties and can be cooked and sterilized at high temperature in food applications due to its stability in heat processes." Many studies on Fibersol-2 have looked at its health benefits.
Physiologically, the ingredient has been shown to promote normal bowel regularity and stool volume. In a study of 14 females and six males with fecal frequency fewer than three times per week, the subjects received 3.75 g of Fibersol-2 per day for five days. One researcher found that weekly fecal frequency increased from 2.6 to 4.0 times. In addition, fecal volume (expressed in terms of the volume of an egg) was increased from 6.0 to 11.3. The subjects also had significantly increased proportions of bifidobacteria in intestinal microflora. This finding was supported in another study in which healthy adults were given 10g of Fibersol-2 three times per day over a one-month period. Researchers found that bifidobacterium increased in all subjects, with some experiencing increases of more than 10 percent.
Fibersol-2 is capable of increasing the amount of good bacteria, probiotics, within the large intestine due to the fact that most of this fiber is transported to that specific area of the colon. In a normal absorption pattern of a sugar and starch mixture, the majority is absorbed in the stomach and in the beginning of the small intestine. Ohkuma and Wakabayashi hypothesized that most of Fibersol-2 escapes digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. "It is estimated that [approximately 90 percent of the administered Fibersol-2 reaches the large intestine and half of that is metabolized by intestinal bacteria," they noted.
Fibersol-2's slow digestion helps maintain blood glucose levels. In one study, changes in postprandial blood glucose levels were monitored in 40 healthy humans. The subjects were given a fixed menu of Japanese udon noodles with fried bean curd and rice, with either green tea or a beverage containing 5.0g of Fibersol-2. Postprandial blood glucose levels for subjects receiving green tea and Fibersol-2 remained low, compared to subjects ingesting only green tea, despite the subjects eating the same food. (Tokunaga K and Matsuoka A, "Effects of a [FOSHU] which contains indigestible dextrin as an effective ingredient on glucose and lipid metabolism," J Japanese Diabetes Society, 42:61-65, 1999.) Animal models have taken this finding further to determine how it could promote weight loss.
Inulin Fiber (fructo-oligosaccharide extract of chicory root) 5,000 mg
Inulin fiber delivers eight milligrams of prebiotic, which is a subset fiber. These types of prebiotic fibers are food sources that are preferred by friendly bacteria. Inulin, an important prebiotic, exists in foods such as asparagus, chicory, garlic, Jerusalem artichoke and onion. Inulin or fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are fibers in the form of starches that the human body cannot fully digest. When a person consumes prebiotics, the undigested portions provide nourishment for beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract. Inulins may promote the growth of favorable bacterial populations, such as bifidobacteria in the colon. Bifidobacteria may inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium perfringens and diarrheogenic strains of Escherichia coli.
Probiotic Blend (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifodobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus casei)
Probiotics such as acidophilus, or lactobacillus acidophilus, are strains of "beneficial" or "good" bacteria, known to help to maintain a healthy digestive tract. The digestive system naturally houses trillions of these good bacteria that directly help the body digest, modify and convert the foods we eat. Disruptions to these populations of probiotics (good bacteria) are common and must be kept at adequate levels in order to overwhelm other bacteria, which may begin to run rampant in the event the good bacteria levels decrease. In displacing other bacteria and yeast, acidophilus (and other beneficial bacteria like plantarun, bifidum and casei) may also play a significant role in maintaining a healthy immune system, and promoting a healthy colon. Such beneficial bacteria can be found naturally in foods such as cultured yogurts and kefir.
Both human and animal studies have demonstrated direct benefits of consistent ingestion of acidophilus and other beneficial bacteria on immune system function. Overall, the probiotic bacteria support the ability of the immune system to recognize and destroy invading organisms. Several key fighters of the immune system, including macrophages, immunoglobulins cytokines, are benefit by regular intake of beneficial bacteria. Consuming beneficial bacteria helps maintain healthy white blood cell counts.
L-glutamine 1,000 mg
High-protein foods including meat, fish, beans and dairy products are excellent sources of glutamine. L-glutamine is an amino acid derived from another amino acid, glutamic acid. Glutamine is a restorative amino acid that is used by the GI tract as its source of fuel. Glutamine helps to support overall health by helping to maintain normal cholesterol levels, helping to maintain normal blood glucose levels and promoting immune health. Heavy exercise, infection, surgery and trauma can all deplete the body's glutamine reserves, particularly in muscle cells. Because the cells of the intestine use glutamine for fuel, supplemental L-glutamine has been used to promote digestive health.